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ISBN 9789065509130. ^ a b c Frucht, Richard C. p. 121. ISBN 9781576078006. ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2003). The History of the Baltic States. p. 25. ISBN 9780313323553. ^ Raun, Toivo U. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ a b Raun, Toivo U. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ Stone, David R. A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya. pp. 14–18. ISBN 9780275985028. ^ Raun, Toivo U. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ Raun, Toivo U. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ Williams, Nicola; Herrmann, Debra; Kemp, Cathryn (2003).

Jokipii, Mauno (ed. Baltisk kultur och historia (in Swedish). pp. 22–23. ISBN 9789134512078. ^ Miljan, Toivo (2015). Historical Dictionary of Estonia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 441. ISBN 9780810875135. ^ Frucht, Richard C. Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture, Volume 1. p. 100. ISBN 9781576078006. ^ Frost, Robert I. (2014). The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 – 1721. Routledge. p. 305.

Renewable wind energy was about 6% of total consumption in 2009. [251] Estonia imports petroleum products from western Europe and Russia. Estonia imports 100% of its natural gas from Russia. [252] Oil shale energy, telecommunications, textiles, chemical products, banking, services, food and fishing, timber, shipbuilding, electronics, and transportation are key sectors of the economy. [253] The ice-free port of Muuga, near Tallinn, is a modern facility featuring good transshipment capability, a high-capacity grain elevator, chill/frozen storage, and new oil tanker off-loading capabilities. [citation needed] The railroad serves as a conduit between the West, Russia, and other points. [citation needed] The central business district of Tallinn Because of the global economic recession that began in 2007, the GDP of Estonia decreased by 1.

ISBN 9781317898573. ^ Raudkivi, Priit (2007). Vana-Liivimaa maapäev (in Estonian). Argo. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-9949-415-84-7. ^ Mol, Johannes A. ; Militzer, Klaus; Nicholson, Helen J. (2006). The Military Orders and the Reformation: Choices, State Building, and the Weight of Tradition. Uitgeverij Verloren. pp. 5–6.

^ Plakans, Andrejs (2011). A Concise History of the Baltic States. Cambridge University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780521833721. ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2006). Culture and Customs of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9780313331251. ^ Raun, Toivo U. p. 20. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ O'Connor, Kevin (2006). p. 10. ISBN 9780313331251. ^ Pekomäe, Vello (1986). Estland genom tiderna (in Swedish). Stockholm: VÄLIS-EESTI & EMP. p. 319. ISBN 91-86116-47-9. ^ Jokipii, Mauno (1992).

[358] However, by 2010, 64. 1% of non-ethnic Estonians spoke Estonian. [359] The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city of Tallinn and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Viru county. From the 13th to the 20th century, there were Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia, particularly in the coastal areas and on the islands (e. g., Hiiumaa, Vormsi, Ruhnu; in Swedish, known as Dagö, Ormsö, Runö, respectively) along the Baltic sea, communities which today have almost disappeared.

[239] In European Union Estonia participates in Nordic Battlegroup and Permanent Structured Cooperation. [240][241] Since 1995 Estonia has participated in numerous international security and peacekeeping missions, including: Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, Kosovo, and Mali. [242] The peak strength of Estonian deployment in Afghanistan was 289 soldiers in 2009. [243] 11 Estonian soldiers have been killed in missions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. The word kroon (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈkroːn], "crown") is related to that of the other Nordic currencies (such as the Swedish krona and the Danish and Norwegian krone). The kroon succeeded the mark in 1928 and was used until 1940. After Estonia regained its independence, the kroon was reintroduced in 1992. Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 until 2012 Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area. [citation needed] In 1994, based on the economic theories of Milton Friedman, Estonia became one of the first countries to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income.

Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around 360 degrees. See also[edit] Outline of Estonia Index of Estonia-related articles References[edit] ^ "PHC 2011: over a quarter of the population are affiliated with a particular religion". Statistics Estonia. 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 24 November 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2014. ^ a b "Information About Estonia 2021". ^ "Surface water and surface water change".

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[23] The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, and saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. [25] A transition from hunter-fisher subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, and was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC. [20][26] The large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes.

Estonian NGOs also report that industry actively lobbies for the weakening of Estonian regulations protecting these reserves. [179] At the same time, Estonia's current Minister of the Environment Erki Savisaar has announced that the Estonian government intends to dispute Estonia's obligations to reduce logging in accordance with the European Commission's climate package.

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Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. ^ Raun, Toivo U. p. 38. p. 41. pp. 47–49. p. 286. ISBN 9985701151. ^ Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (2004). p. 90. ISBN 9042008903. ^ a b c Raun, Toivo U. p. 59. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ a b Raukas, Anto (2002). p. 287. p. 93. pp. 90–91. p. 91. ISBN 9042008903. ^ a b Cultural Policy in Estonia. Council of Europe. 1997. ISBN 9789287131652. ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). p. 291.

Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. University of Michigan. p. 190. ISBN 1-74059-132-1. ^ Frost, Robert I. p. 77. ISBN 9781317898573. ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). p. 283. ISBN 9985701151. ^ Raun, Toivo U. pp. 32–33. p. 33. p. 34. ISBN 9780817928537. ^ "The Baltic States from 1914 to 1923 By LtCol Andrew Parrott" (PDF).

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^ Laurisaar, Riho (29 April 2006). Retrieved 4 November 2016. ^ Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Harvard University Press. p. 690. ISBN 9780674023871. ^ Kasekamp, Andres (2010). p. 14. ISBN 9780230364509. ^ Raukas, Anto (2002). p. 278. p. 15. p. 279. ISBN 9985701151.

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